Bonnie K. Goodman BA, MLIS (McGill University) is a Professional Librarian (CBPQ) & historian. Former editor @ History News Network & reporter @ Examiner.com.

Grant’s General Order Number 11 and Anti-Semitism during the Civil War

By Bonnie K. Goodman, BA, MLIS

Introduction

Rise of Anti-Immigrant Sentiment

The Shylock stereotype was behind Union General Ulysses S. Grant’s reasons for ordering General Order Number 11, on December 17, 1862, expelling “Jews as a class” from areas of Northern occupied former Confederate states Tennessee, Mississippi, and the Border State of Kentucky. General Order Number 11 stands out in American history as the first instance of a policy of official anti-Semitism on a large scale. At the time, prominent Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise called it an “outrage, without precedent in American history.” [1] Historian Jonathan Sarna notes General Order Number 11 became known as…


The police and Canadian health care are overstepping their boundaries, and this has to stop

By Bonnie K. Goodman, BA, MLIS.

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Wikimedia Commons

Every other day we hear in the news that police are shooting Black Americans. The Black Lives Matter movement began in 2013 in an attempt to protest these senseless killings.[1] The movement sparked after a jury acquitted George Zimmerman, who fatally shot 17-year-old Trayvon Martin. Zimmerman claimed he used Florida’s stand your ground self-defense.[2] Even when there are crimes, such force is not warranted, and Black Americans are overwhelmingly victims of the brutality. In Canada, Black Americans, indigenous, and visible minorities are often at the receiving end of such police shootings.

At the end…


Dreaming of Equality: Francis Salvador, the American Jewish Revolutionary Patriot

By Bonnie K. Goodman, BA, MLIS

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Dreaming of Equality: Francis Salvador, the American Jewish Revolutionary Patriot

By Bonnie K. Goodman, BA, MLIS

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Bernard Zakheim’s Jewish Patriots of the American Revolution

On this day in history, September 7, 1787, Jewish Philadelphia merchant Jonas Philips wrote to President of the Constitutional Convention George Washington asking that the Constitution grant American Jews religious freedom and equality. Despite the American promise of civil rights and liberties, American Jews did not receive them by most of the original states of the new United States of America. All of the states except for New York did not grant Jews equality for political participation in their state constitutions. New York again became the first to grant Jews full equality. …


Dreaming of Equality: Francis Salvador, the American Jewish Revolutionary Patriot

By Bonnie K. Goodman, BA, MLIS

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Bernard Zakheim’s Jewish Patriots of the American Revolution

On this day in history, August 1, 1776, South Carolina Provincial Congress representative Francis Salvador becomes the first Jewish casualty of the American Revolutionary War when a Cherokee native siding with the British killed and scalped him in battle. On January 11, 1775, Francis Salvador, the first Jew elected to a colonial public office began his tenure on the revolutionary South Carolina Provincial Congress. Salvador was a recent immigrant to America having arrived in Charleston, South Carolina from London in 1773, a year later, he was elected to the South Carolina assembly becoming the…


Dreaming of Equality: Francis Salvador, the American Jewish Revolutionary Patriot

By Bonnie K. Goodman, BA, MLIS

Image for post
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Dreaming of Equality: Francis Salvador, the American Jewish Revolutionary Patriot

By Bonnie K. Goodman, BA, MLIS

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Bernard Zakheim’s Jewish Patriots of the American Revolution

By the time of the American Revolution, there were 2,000 to 2,500 Jews living in the colonies, they only represented one-tenth of a percent of the American population, which was about two million.[1] According to Hasia Diner, “Each of the five Jewish communities that existed on the eve of the American Revolution — New York, Philadelphia, Newport, Charleston, and Savannah — has its own history. In each the process of initial settlement, the consecration of a cemetery, formation of a congregation, and the building of a synagogue took place. In each Jews, both accepted…


Dreaming of Equality: Francis Salvador, the American Jewish Revolutionary Patriot

By Bonnie K. Goodman, BA, MLIS

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Bernard Zakheim’s Jewish Patriots of the American Revolution

At the time, the American Revolution broke out there were only 2,000 to 2,500 Jews in the American colonies, most concentrated in the six-port cities, New York, Philadelphia, Newport, Charleston, and Savannah with less than a hundred fighting in the war. While the majority of the Jewish population lived in the port cities, Jewish traders and shopkeepers lived in the outlying frontier regions “selling goods to fur trappers, buying from the Indians, and speculating in lands.” [1]

Jews’ first impression of the American colonies was hostile. In September 1654, twenty-three Jewish refugees arrived in…


By Bonnie K. Goodman, BA, MLIS

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The Jewish Position in Colonial America

On this day in history January 11, 1775, Francis Salvador, the first Jew elected to a colonial public office begins his tenure on the revolutionary South Carolina Provincial Congress. Salvador was a recent immigrant to America having arrived in Charleston, South Carolina from London in 1773, a year later, he was elected to the South Carolina assembly becoming the first Jew elected to a political body in modern history, and then in 1775, he was reelected to Second Provincial Congress. Salvador became a Whig and supported the colonial revolt and then the fight for…


Significant Events in the Revolutionary Era, 1754–1812

By Bonnie K. Goodman, BA, MLIS

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On This Day in the History of American Independence 1754 to 1812, the thirteen American colonies under the British Empire declared independence and twice beat the mightiest military power in the world. This is the story of the American Revolution told from significant dates and events that changed the course of history. The story starts with the French-Indian War in 1754, through adopting the Declaration of Independence in 1776, and ending with the War of 1812 in 1815. Americans gained their independence from Britain and became the first modern democracy in the world. …

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